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【考研英语二】搞定细节题,阅读40分稳稳拿下!

泰祺集团/ 笔试攻略/ 精品学科/ 英语
泰祺教育 2022年08月12日 9

 

英格丽丝的微笑
 

“英格丽丝的微笑”是泰祺教育打造的精品学科栏目之一,专注于考研英语(二)的钻研。栏目定期分享泰祺英语教研组老师们对词汇记忆、复习规划、做题方法的心得,旨在帮助同学们梳理英语学科知识、掌握解题思路,从而更好地学习、提分。欢迎您持续关注英格丽丝的微笑,这里有:有料的知识、有趣的惊喜!

 

 

 

本文作者:张南海老师(Coco)

泰祺教育英语教研组老师

 
 

考研英语(二)的阅读中占比最高的就是细节题,一般每年在12题左右,有的年份比如2016年细节题可以多达18题,可见细节题的重要性。今天我们就介绍一下细节题的题型,给大家讲解如何又快又准拿下细节题的分数。

 

首先细节题的解题步骤为:

 

1. 定位:画出题干中的定位关键词,找到原文中的定位处

2. 匹配:匹配选项与定位处是否一致

 

其次细节题的正确选项一定是文章中给出的直接信息,但又不是照抄一模一样的表达,所以细节题正确答案的特征我们可以总结为如下4种:

 

1. 个别单词的同义替换

2. 文章句子的同义改写

3. 句子/段落的概括浓缩

4. 正话反说

 

其中考的最多的是“同义替换”和“同义改写”,这两种也是较为容易做对的题目,而如果考到“概括浓缩”或者“正话反说”,则题目难度会较高。

 

下面我们就来用真题演示如何攻克细节题。

 

同义替换

 

24. According to the last paragraph, Happy Money       .(2014年Text 1第24题)

[A] may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

[B] has left much room for readers’ criticism

[C] has predicted a wider income gap in the US

[D] may give its readers a sense of achievement

 

Readers of Happy Money are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.

 

解析:由题干中的last paragraph和Happy Money可以定位到文章最后一段的最后一句。最后一句指出,大部分人读完此书后都会认为,它非常值得购买,【A】选项正确。我们不难发现原文的“it was money well spent”是A选项“a worthwhile purchase”的同义替换。

 

B】将末段第四句并非所有人都会赞同书中的某些政策理论夸大为留下了许多读者批评的空间,并且此句后有转折信号词“But”可知作者语义重心在最后一句话,所以B选项违背了作者对该书的总体赞同态度。 

 

C a wider income gap“美国的收入差距在最后一段中并未提到,属于无中生有的选项。

 

【D】利用最后一段首句关键词readers、fulfillment捏造干扰,但该句意为“该书旨在帮助读者从‘花钱’中得到满足”,并非“该书能带给读者一种成就感”,故不对。

 

同义改写

 

29. Which of the following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6 ?(2018年Text 2第29题)

[A] Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.

[B] It is commonly used in car manufacturing.

[C] Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.

[D] Its application has boosted battery storage.

 

The question “what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?” has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.

The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now, this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.

 

解析:根据题干定位到第五段第②句指出“电池存储容量的提升使得连续不断供电变得更为可能”,与A选项Its continuous supply is becoming a reality “可再生能源有望实现持续供应”是同义改写,“continuous supply”和原文“keep power flowing around the clock”一致,“is becoming a reality”与原文“keep ... more likely”也为同义表达,故【A】正确。

 

【D】选项将第五段第②句“电池存储容量的提升促成清洁能源的持续供应”因果颠倒为“清洁能源的应用提升了电池存储容量”,是强干扰选项。

 

概括浓缩

 

24. According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to         .(2016年Text 1第24题)

[A] compete with a future army of programmers

[B] stay longer in the information technology industry

[C] become better prepared for the digitalized world

[D] bring forth innovative computer technologies

 

Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers—in their pockets, in their offices, in their homes—for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want—the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that—the better.

 

解析:根据题干中last paragraph、Flatiron students和are expected to定位到文章中最后一段第③句话。首先第②句表明Flatiron的目的不仅限于creating a future army of coders “培养编码大军”,随后第③④句解释Flatiron的其他目的:计算机也将继续影响人们的生活,人们越早接触计算机知识,了解其思维方式,让计算机为我所用,就越好,也就是说,Flatiron还致力于“使人更好应对这个数字时代”,因此【C】正确。

 

C选项是对第四段③④句的高度概括浓缩,the digitalized world对应 These kids are going to be surrounded by computers;而become better prepared对应④句The younger they learn...the better.

 

30. According to Tronick, kids’ use of screens may        .(2017年Text 2第30题)

[A] make their parents more creative

[B] give their parents some free time

[C] help them with their homework

[D] help them become more attentive

 

On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids’ use of screens are born out of an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting” with their children. It’s based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose your child to 30,000 words, you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there is no value to it—particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets them be more available to their child the rest of the time.

 

解析:根据题干中Tronick和kids’ use of screens定位到笫四段第③句指出,Tronick认为孩子使用数码产品doesn’t mean there is no value to it并非完全没有好处;它可以使父母抽出时间洗澡、做家务或者稍作休息,即为【B】选项的“给父母一些自由时间”,正确答案【B】选项为原文第③句it (the screen) gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child的概括浓缩。

 

正话反说

 

27. The “threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it          .(2016年Text 2第27题)

[A] was a give-in to governmental pressure

[B] would involve fewer agencies in action

[C] granted less federal regulatory power

[D] went against conservation policies

 

The crash was a major reason the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service(USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened. “The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation,” said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered”, a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats. But Ashe and others argued that the “threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservation approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken’s habitat.

 

解析:根据题干关键词“threatened” tag、disappointed、environmentalists定位至第二段第③④⑤句。③句首先指出一些环保主义者对于将该鸟类列为“受威胁物种”感到失望,④句交代原因他们曾经一直敦促USFWS将其认定为“濒危物种”,以赋予联邦政府更大的监管权。而题干问的是“受威胁”标签令一些环保主义者感到失望是因为什么,正确答案选【C】“联邦政府的监管权力较小”这是利用反向同义表达的方法,即正话反说。

 

即:“呼吁将该鸟类列为濒危物种以赋予联邦政府更大的监管权力” = “对将该物种列为受威胁物种感到失望是因为这一标签意味着联邦政府的监管权力较小”。

 

难点在于很多同学看到原文为“greater”而选项为“less”会误以为错误,而选成别的选项,因此“正话反说”是细节题中最难的一个考法之一。

 

 

希望同学们掌握了细节题的正确选项的特征之后,可以搞定90%的细节题,争取阅读冲上40分!有任何疑问或想法都欢迎在评论区留言哦~

 

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