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【考研英语二】宇宙的尽头是逻辑——阅读猜词题探秘

泰祺集团/ 笔试攻略/ 精品学科/ 英语
泰祺教育 2022年07月08日 4

 

 

英格丽丝的微笑
 

“英格丽丝的微笑”是泰祺教育打造的精品学科栏目之一,专注于考研英语(二)的钻研。栏目定期分享泰祺英语教研组老师们对词汇记忆、复习规划、做题方法的心得,旨在帮助同学们梳理英语学科知识、掌握解题思路,从而更好地学习、提分。欢迎您持续关注英格丽丝的微笑,这里有:有料的知识、有趣的惊喜!

 

 

本文作者:戴欢老师
泰祺教育英语教研组老师
 
 

在英语二的考试中,我们常说“得阅读者得天下”。其中传统型阅读理解(试卷中阅读Part A部分)分值占比40%,重要性不言而喻。

 

众所周知,在传统型阅读六大题型之中,猜词题的难度只处于金字塔的底端,希望同学们都能做到逢考必会。这一期英格丽丝的微笑会借助几个猜词题的实战演练,向大家介绍该题型的基本做题步骤。

 

 

猜词题是根据大纲第4条“根据上下文推断重要生词或词组的含义”设置的一种题型,顾名思义,要求考生结合原文进行合乎逻辑的推理,得出一个正确的选项。该词句可能是大纲词汇,也有可能是超纲词汇。包含了对一词多义、熟词辟义等现象的考察。

 

对于猜词题的基本解题思路为:

 

1. 回原文定位,找到原句进行解读。

2. 判断原句与上下文(主要为邻居句)的逻辑关系。若逻辑关系相同,则考察同义关系;若逻辑关系相反,则考察反义关系。

3. 与选项进行匹配。

 

接下来,我们直击主题。

 

 

 

e.g.1 This episode crystallizes the irony that although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations, they often talk less at home. And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage.

The pattern was observed by political scientist Andrew Hacker in the late 1970s. Sociologist Catherine Kohler Riessman reports in her new book Divorce Talk that most of the women she interviewed—but only a few of the men—gave lack of communication as the reason for their divorces. (2010 Text2)

 

Judging from the context, the phrase “wreaking havoc” (Para.2) most probably means         .

[A] generating motivation

[B] exerting influence

[C] causing damage

[D] creating pressure

 

 

解析:“wreaking havoc” 处于第二段第二句话 “And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage” 中,意为“这种模式正在       婚姻”。根据上一句,“这种模式”指的是 “although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations, they often talk less at home” ,男性在公共场合说的多,而女性在家里说的多,说明了夫妻之间存在沟通问题。根据下文,sociologist Catherine在其新书Divorce talk中谈到,大部分女性将离婚归因于缺乏沟通(gave lack of communication as the reason for their divorces)因此判断逻辑关系:wreaking havoc对marriage产生的结果应该是divorce,感情色彩为负,排除A和B,而选项D“制造压力”没体现缺乏沟通对婚姻造成的巨大伤害,故选C。

 

 

 

e.g.2 About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage. (2013 Text2)

 

“Birds of passage” refers to those who         .

[A] immigrate across the Atlantic   

[B] leave their home countries for good

[C] stay in a foreign country temporarily         

[D] find permanent jobs overseas

 
 

解析:“Birds of passage” 处于They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage句子中,“他们甚至有一个亲切的昵称,候鸟”。uccelli di passaggio是意大利语,birds of passage是对它的英文解释。那么,they指代的内容即是正确答案。往前一句中去寻找they指代的内容,About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. 意为:举例来说,约有四分之一的意大利移民最终永久地返回了意大利。由此,判断逻辑关系,they指代的应为先移民后又回到祖国的意大利人,所以只有C选项“短暂呆在国外”符合原文。

 

 

 

e.g.3 At work, people pretty much know what they’re supposed to be doing: working, making money, doing the tasks they have to do in order to draw an income. The bargain is very pure: Employee puts in hours of physical or mental labor and employee draws out life-sustaining moola. (2015 Text1)

 

The word “moola” (Line 4, Para. 4) most probably means            .

[A] energy

[B] skills

[C] earnings

[D] nutrition

 

 

解析:“moola” 所处的原句 “Employee puts in hours of physical or mental labor and employee draws out life-sustaining moola” 员工投入数小时体力或脑力劳动,然后赚取维持生计的       。原句的上一句working, making money, doing the tasks they have to do in order to draw an income 判断两句的逻辑关系为同向,所以moola与前文的income/money应为同义词,故选项C earnings(收入)为正确答案。

 

 

 

e.g.4 Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changesall things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.  (2017 Text3)

 

The word “acclimation”(Line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to        .

[A] adaptation

[B] application

[C] motivation

[D] competition

 

 

解析:“acclimation” 所在的原句Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders,间隔年的经历能减轻学生在适应大学生活和进入全新环境方面受到的冲击,使其更容易专注于学业和其他活动而不为        分心。由rather than“而不是”可看出,academics and activities与acclimation blunders是对立的关系。原句的前一句中preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changesall things that first-year students often struggle with the most中提到为独立、新的责任和环境变化做好准备往往是大一新生最挣扎的事情。由此判断逻辑关系, acclimation blunders指的是“适应新环境、大学生活、新的责任等”之义,故选A。

 

 

 

e.g.5 Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewables, especially wind and solar. The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years. (2018 Text2)

 

The word “plummeting”(Line 3,Para. 2)is closest in meaning to         .

[A] stabilizing

[B] changing

[C] falling

[D] rising

 

 

 

解析:“plummeting” 所处的原句but increasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewables, especially wind and solar但越来越多的说法是:这源自于可再生能源价格的        尤其是风能和太阳能。下一句The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years 意为:在过去的八年里,太阳能电池板的成本下降了80%,而且风力发电机的成本也下降了近三分之一。由于原句与下一句中不存在转折词,故为同向逻辑关系,并且根据中文意思可判断出,下一句是对原句提到的风能和太阳能情况的进一步解释说明。因此根据逻辑关系可得出,price对应cost,plummeting对应drop,即plummeting与drop是同义词,故选C。

 

 

以上就是今日的猜词题真题举例分享,大家是不是对“猜”词的逻辑推理能力有基本的认识和掌握了呢?有任何疑问或想法都欢迎在评论区留言哦~

 

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