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【考研英语二】“三步走”轻松搞定阅读理解之例证题

泰祺集团/ 笔试攻略/ 精品学科/ 英语
泰祺教育 2022年07月15日 21

 

 

英格丽丝的微笑
 

“英格丽丝的微笑”是泰祺教育打造的精品学科栏目之一,专注于考研英语(二)的钻研。栏目定期分享泰祺英语教研组老师们对词汇记忆、复习规划、做题方法的心得,旨在帮助同学们梳理英语学科知识、掌握解题思路,从而更好地学习、提分。欢迎您持续关注英格丽丝的微笑,这里有:有料的知识、有趣的惊喜!

 

 

 

本文作者:曾南老师
泰祺教育英语教研组老师
 
 

大家都知道,考研英语(二)阅读理解中,大部分文章都是议论文,而议论文主要是由观点例子构成。因此,例证题应运而生。

 

什么是例证题?

 

例证题的题干大意为“例子用来证明......”即:例子+证明

 

例子的常见表达形式有:

The story/case/example/experiment/

quotation/...cite the book/sb./the example或专有名词等

 

证明有哪些词呢?

...is mentioned/cited/used/noted to show/illustrate..../...shows.../...explains...等

 

eg. The joke(例) in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate(证)        . (2013-Text 1-21)

 

eg. The quotation(例)in Paragraph 4 explains(证)that        .(2013-Text 1-23)

 

eg. The ants analogy(例)is used to illustrate(证)          . (2018-Text 3-35)

 

解题思路

 

大家需要注意的是,在议论文中,例子是为了佐证观点的,例子本身并不重要,所以解题的核心在于找观点

 

接下来,“三步走”轻松找出正确答案:

 

Step 1 根据题干关键词,定位例子在文中的位置

Step 2 找观点(80%往例子前面找,20%往例子后面找)

Step 3 匹配选项

 

真题示例

 

接下来我们以真题为例,进行实战演练。

 

Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there’s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes, “In the 10 years ending in 2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs—about 6 million in total—disappeared.”

 

The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that        .(2013-Text 1-23)

A. gains of technology have been erased

B. job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed

C. factories are making much less money than before

D. new jobs and services have been offered

 

Step 1 通过题干关键词quotation回文定位,引言在本段的最后一句话,“正如Davidson所言......”。

 

Step 2 找观点。由于引言是本段最后一句话,我们往前找观点。“的确,新技术一直在蚕食就业机会,并将一直持续下去。”

 

Step 3 匹配选项。通过比对,我们不难发现选项B与原文观点句吻合。job opportunities与jobs、disappearing与eating、at a high speed与acceleration进行替换。所以,正确答案是B。

 

Mr.Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?

 

A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of         .(2018-Text 1-21)

A. mechanical memorization

B. academic training

C. practical ability

D. pioneering spirit

 
Step 1 通过题干关键词a broken bike chain回文定位,在本段最后。
 
Step 2 找观点。例子出现在段尾,我们往前找观点。“K先生是新罕布什尔州一所高中的教师,在那里,学习与书本、考试以及机械记忆无关,而是强调实践。”此处出现...not...but...结构,语义重心在后面,所以强调实践。
 
Step 3 匹配选项。通过比对,只有选项C强调实践能力。所以,正确答案是C。
 

The product they're selling is data, and we, the users, convert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants.Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphids for the honeydew they produce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield. ② Ants keep predatory insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes. It doesn't feel like a human or democratic relationship, even if both sides benefit.

 

The ants analogy is used to illustrate         . (2018-Text 3-35)

A. the relationship between digital giants and their users

B. a typical competition pattern among digital giants

C. the benefits provided for digital giants customers

D. a win-win business model between digital giants

 

Step 1 通过题干关键词ants回文定位,在本段的中间两句话均出现了ants。

 

Step 2 找观点。在例子句①出现了“Just as..., so...就像......一样,......也如此”,此处后半句,类比的是“Google”、“us”和“data”。再根据“80%往例子前面找观点”的原则,我们看前一句话。这句话明确讲到“we, the users”、“digital giants”和“data”。“他们销售的产品是数据,而我们作为用户,则把我们的生活转化成数据,以使得数字巨头们获益。”其实,讲的是用户和数据巨头之间的事情。

 

Step 3 匹配选项。通过比对,只有选项A讲到了数字巨头和用户,其余选项只提到其中一方。所以,正确答案是A。

 

In an essay entitled “Making It in America”, the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton country about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill has only two employees today, “a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog, and the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.”

Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle-class incomes today is largely because of the big drop in demand because of the Great Recession, but it is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign workers.

 

The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate         .(2013-Text 1-21)

A. the impact of technological advances

B. the alleviation of job pressure

C. the shrinkage of textile mills

D. the decline of middle-class incomes

 

Step 1 通过题干关键词The joke在第1段定位,会发现,第一段就一句话,整段都是the joke的内容。

 

Step 2 找观点。在这道题中,第一段都是例子,根据原则,我们往后找,也就是第2段。通过第二段point一词,可以得知此处就是观点,这里提到两个原因,一个是the big drop in demand,另一个是the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution。并且第二个原因出现了转折连词but,则语义重心转移,重点在but后,所以作者想强调的原因是“全球化和信息技术的发展”。

 

Step 3 匹配选项。通过比对,选项A匹配,“技术进步的影响”。

 

 

好啦,我们这期节目就先到这里。更多精彩内容,我们下期见。有任何疑问或想法都欢迎在评论区留言哦~

 

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